Earth Geography   Conversions
   
  This sheet is a work in progress. In sizing up the potential of biomass, it helps to understand the limits.  
    1.60935 km/mi
Population English Metric Percent Item   2.59 km^2/mi^2
  7,918 mi 12,743 km earth diameter 100 hectare/km^2
  49,240,279 mi^2 127,531,970 km^2 earth disk area 640 ac/mi^2
    0.40 hectare/acre
  196,961,118 mi^2 510,127,879 km^2 earth surface area
   
  137,872,783 mi^2 379,127,879 km^2 74% earth water area
  59,088,335 mi^2 131,000,000 km^2 26% earth land area
  24,233,455 mi^2 39,000,000 km^2 8% earth forest area
  30% earth forest area:land area
  ? earth cultivated area
   
  USA  
   
  3,717,813 mi^2 9,629,091 km^2 100% USA surface area
   
  181,519 470,131 5% USA water area
  3,536,294 9,158,960 95% USA land area
  1,768,270 18% USA arable area
  3,010,000 31% USA forest area
  1,980,000 21% USA commercial forest area
  USA cultivated land
  207,000 2% USA irrigated land (1993 est.)
   
  Land use: arable land: 19% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 25% forests and woodland: 30% other: 26% (1993 est.)
   
  Arizona  
   
  113,998 295,254 km^2  
   
   
  California  
37,172,015 12% USA population
  158,302 410,000 km^2 California surface area
  19,270 km^2 4.7% California water area
   
  4.5% CA/USA  
               
See also
World production of major crops in 2004
Top agricultural products, by crop types
(million metric tons) 2004 data
Cereals 2,264
Vegetables and melons 866
Roots and Tubers 715
Milk 619
Fruit 503
Meat 259
Oilcrops 133
Fish (2001 estimate) 130
Eggs 63
Pulses 60
Vegetable Fiber 30
Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
Top agricultural products, by individual crops
(million metric tons) 2004 data
Sugar Cane 1,324
Maize 721
Wheat 627
Rice 605
Potatoes 328
Sugar Beet 249
Soybean 204
Oil palm Fruit 162
Barley 154
Tomato 120
Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
Major agricultural products, United_States
Major Crops in the U.S.A. - 1997
value rank million metric tons $/tonne (in US$ billions)
1 Corn 257 256,904,992 $ 24 95 Corn 24
3 Cow's milk, whole, fresh 78 78,155,000 Soybean 18
5 Soybeans 66 65,795,300 $ 18 269 Wheat 9
7 Wheat 64 63,589,820 $ 9 135 Alfalfa 8
20 Sugar beets 28 27,764,390 Cotton 6
12 Potatoes 21 20,821,930 Hay, other than alfalfa 5
4 Chicken meat 15 15,006,000 Tobacco 3
11 Tomatoes 12 12,275,000 Rice 2
2 Cattle meat 12 11,736,300 Sorghum 1
14 Oranges 10 10,473,450 Barley 1
17 Sorghum 10 10,445,900 Source: 1997 USDA-NASS reports
15 Rice, paddy 9 9,033,610 $ 2 188
6 Pig meat 9 8,574,290
13 Grapes 6 6,125,670
19 Cottonseed 6 6,072,690
9 Hen eggs 5 5,141,000
18 Lettuce 4 4,490,000
16 Apples 4 4,241,810
8 Cotton lint 4 3,967,810 $ 6 1,537
10 Turkey meat 3 2,584,200
In 2004, of the 145 million employed workers in the US, 834,000 of them held jobs as agricultural workers.
U.S. agriculture has a high yield relative to other countries. The yield was (in 2004):[2]
* Corn for grain, average of 160.4 bushels harvested per acre (10.07 t/ha)
* Soybean for beans, average of 42.5 bushels harvested per acre (2.86 t/ha)
* Wheat, average of 43.2 bushels harvested per acre (2.91 t/ha, was 44.2 bu/ac or 2.97 t/ha in 2003)
Other statistics, United States
Electricity:
* production: 3,892 TWh (2003)
* consumption: 3,656 TWh (2003)
* exports: 23.97 TWh (2003)
* imports: 30.39 TWh (2003)
Electricity - production by source:
* fossil fuel: 71.4%
* hydro: 5.6%
* nuclear: 20.7%
* other: 2.3% (2001)
Oil:
* production: 7.8 million barrel/day (2004 est.)
* consumption: 19.65 million barrel/day (2001 est.)
* exports: NA
* imports: NA
* net imports: 12.097 million barrel/day (2004 est.)
* proved reserves: 22.45 billion barrel (1 January 2002)
Natural gas:
* production: 548.1 billion m (2001 est.)
* consumption: 640.9 billion m (2001 est.)
* exports: 11.16 billion m (2001 est.)
* imports: 114.1 billion m (2001 est.)
* proved reserves: 5.195 trillion m (1 January 2002)
Ethanol Reshapes the Corn Market
With a corn-to-ethanol conversion rate of 2.7 gallons per bushel (a rate that many state-of-the-art facilities are already surpassing), the U.S. ethanol sector will need 2.6 billion bushels per year by 20101.2 billion bushels more than it consumed in 2005.
A comparison of the 2006 Baseline with the 2005 Baseline suggests that much of the increased use by ethanol producers will be diverted from potential exports
Making sense out of apparently conflicting data
Regional Data Exchange System
USA Calculate from graphs Percent of total
Total land area 9,158,960 km^2
915,896,000 hectares
Total land area 884,135,000 based on %s below right hectares 97% close enough
Arable land 176,827,000 183,179,200 hectares 20%
Permanent crops 2,050,000 2,050,000 hectares 0.22%
Forest hectares
Pasture 234,000,000 238,132,960 hectares 26%
Irrigated 119,066,480 hectares 13%
Other incl forest 494,583,840 hectares 54%
hectares
Arizona 29,525,400 hectares 25% of irrigated
410,000
41,000,000
California 2002 Percent of total
million acres
Total land area 99.81 40,391,747 hectares 100%
Total farmland 27.59 11,165,297 28%
Cropland 10.99 4,447,503 11%
Percent in pasture 12% 542,595 1%
Percent irrigated 72% 3,215,545 8%
Harvested Cropland 8.47 3,427,694 8%
Woodland 1.19 481,577 1%
Percent in pasture 57% 274,499 1%
Pastureland 13.99 5,661,562 14%
Land in house lots, ponds, roads,
wasteland, etc. 1.42 574,655 1.4%
Percent of total farmland 5%
 
World deforestation rates and forest cover statistics, 2000-2005
New deforestation figures show Nigeria has worst rate of forest loss
Rhett A. Butler, mongabay.com
November 17, 2005 [updated to correct FAO change in data]
Nigeria has the world's highest deforestation rate, Brazil loses the largest area of forest annually, and Congo consumes more bushmeat than any other tropical country. These are among the findings from mongabay.com's analysis of new deforestation figures from the United Nations.
Monday, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) released its 2005 Global Forest Resources Assessment, a regular report on the status world's forest resources. Overall, FAO concludes that net deforestation rates have fallen since the 1990-2000 period, but some 13 million hectares of the worlds forests are still lost each year, including 6 million hectares of primary forests. Primary forests -- forests with no visible signs of past or present human activities -- are considered the most biologically diverse ecosystems on the planet.
The United States has the seventh largest annual loss of primary forests in the world, according to FAO. In the 2000-2005 period, the United States lost an average of 831 square miles (215,200 hectares, 2,152 square kilometers or 531,771 acres) of such lands which are sometimes termed "old-growth forests."
Overall, when plantations are added to the picture, the US gained a net 614 square miles (159,000 hectares) of forest per year. The FAO report suggests America's primary forests are losing ground to modified natural, seminatural, and plantation forests. Earlier this year, the government revoked President Clinton's 2001 "Roadless Area Conservation Rule" that protected 58.5 million acres of undeveloped national forest, in effect opening more than 90,000 square miles of forests to road construction, logging and industrial development.
2005. All countries Total forest cover Primary forest % Primary Highest average annual deforestation of primary forests, 2000-2005, by area. deforestation rate of primary forests
Russian Federation 808,790,000 255,470 255,470,000 31.59% (532,200) 1.0%
Brazil 477,698,000 415,890 415,890,000 87.06% (3,466,000) 4.2%
Canada 310,134,000 165,424 165,424,000 53.34% 0.0%
United States of America 303,089,000 104,182 104,182,000 34.37% (215,200) 1.0%
China 197,290,000
Australia 163,678,000
Democratic Republic of the Congo 133,610,000
Indonesia 88,495,000 48,702 48,702,000 55.03% (1,447,800) 13% 15%
Peru 68,742,000 61,065 61,065,000 88.83% (224,600)
India 67,701,000
Sudan 67,546,000
Mexico 64,238,000 32,850 32,850,000 51.14% (395,000)
Colombia 60,728,000 53,062 53,062,000 87.38%
Angola 59,104,000
Bolivia 58,740,000 29,360 29,360,000 49.98% (135,200)
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 47,713,000
Zambia 42,452,000
United Republic of Tanzania 35,257,000
Argentina 33,021,000
Myanmar 32,222,000
Papua New Guinea 29,437,000 25,211 25,211,000 85.64% (250,200)
Suriname 14,214 14,214,000
Sudan 13,509 13,509,000 (117,807)
Madagascar 10,347 10,347,000
Guyana 9,314 9,314,000
French Guiana 7,701 7,701,000
Central African Republic 22,755,000
Congo 22,471,000 7,464 7,464,000 33.22%
Thailand 6,451 6,451,000
Ecuador 4,794 4,794,000
Gabon 21,775,000
Cameroon 21,245,000
Malaysia 20,890,000
Nigeria (82,000) 56%
Viet Nam 55%
Cambodia 29%
Sri Lanka 15%
Malawi 15%
North Korea 9%
Nepal 9%
Panama 7%
Guatemala 6%
forest statistics
World's forests cover 3.9 billion hectares (9.8 billion acres - or 29.6 percent of the land base)
* The entire land base of the United States is 2.263 billion acres (913.7 million hectares)
* US forests cover 747 million acres (301 million hectares - or 33 percent of the land base)
* Sixty-seven percent of the total area of US forests (495 million acres, or 198 million hectares) are commercial forests, used to produce timber for forest products
* World's entire land base covers 13.1 billion hectares (32.8 billion acres)
* World's forests cover 3.9 billion hectares (9.8 billion acres - or 29.6 percent of the land base)
Between 1980 and 1990 there was a net loss of 130 million hectares (325 million acres), or three percent of the world's total forest land. Between 1990 and 2000, the net loss of forest dropped to 90 million hectares (225 million acres), or 2.3 percent of the total area of forest.
Global Forest Watch, Human Pressure on the Brazilian Amazon Forests